Jeff Denson and Joshua White: I’ll Fly Away (PFMCD081)

Jeff Kaiser 1 Comment

[playlist ids="547"]
I’ll Fly Away

Jeff Denson: Double Bass
Joshua White: Piano

1. I’ll Fly Away (Version One) (Albert E. Brumley) 4:34
2. Lord, I Want to be a Christian (African American Spiritual) 5:19
3. Down at the Cross (Elisha A. Hoffman/John H. Stockton) 5:22
4. Amazing Grace (Anonymous) 5:47
5. I’ll Fly Away (Version Two) (Albert E. Brumley) 3:53
6. What a Friend We Have in Jesus (Charles Crozat Converse) 6:11
7. When the Saints Go Marching In (Anonymous) 4:12
8. Just As I Am (Charlotte Elliot/William B. Bradbury) 3:57
9. Crying in the Chapel (Artie Glenn) 3:10
10. In the Garden (C. Austin Miles) 5:04
11. I’ll Fly Away (Version Three) (Albert E. Brumley) 2:41

Recorded and Mixed by Adam Munoz at Fantasy Studios in Berkeley, CA March 4-5, 2013
Mastered by Myles Boisen at Headless Buddha Studios in Oakland, CA on December 28, 2013

Art and Layout by Ted Killian

“I’ll Fly Away” Copyright 1960 by Albert E. Brumley & Sons. Used by permission.
“Crying in the Chapel” Copyright 1953 by Unichappell Music Inc. Used by permission.

This recording is dedicated to my grandmother, Bonnie Denson whose unwavering faith and joyous spirit have been an inspiration to all whom have had the pleasure to know her and my to mother, Gwen Denson for her love, support and friendship. Without family we are lost.

pfMENTUM CD081

PFMCD081

Dave Ballou: Quadrants (PFMCD113)

Jeff Kaiser

Quadrants
for solo trumpet

[playlist ids="1113"]

Dave Ballou

1. North 15:16
2. East 14:54
3. South 15:10
4. West 15:02

Dave Ballou—Bb trumpet, flugelhorn, piccolo trumpet and mutes
Each piece was performed in sequence with no overdubs or edits

Parameters: An hourglass with a 15 minute sand flow
Focal pitches: Bb, B, E, F (concert)

Recorded March 13, 2015 and mixed June 3, 2015
Ed Tetrault, engineer—Peabody Recording Studios
Peabody Conservatory, Baltimore, MD

Mastering October 10, 2016 by Wayne Peet Newzone Studio, Los Angeles, CA

Thanks to Jeff Kaiser, Tony Malaby, Danny Gouker, Adam Hopkins, Mike Kuhl, Jeff Reed, Ralph Alessi, Ellery Eskelin, Jim McFalls, John Dierker, Michael Formanek, Kevin Whitehead, Jonathan Finlayson and Leise Ballou.

Graphic Design by Ted Killian

This recording is made possible with the support of a grant from the Towson University Faculty Research and Development Center.

© 2017 Dave Ballou Music BMI

pfMENTUM CD113
PFMCD113

John Blevins: Matterhorn (PFMCD092)

Jeff Kaiser

[playlist ids="765"]

John Blevins: Matterhorn

(Please note: this is for the CD version, the vinyl version is available here.)

1. Identity Theft
2. Unaware
3. Brink
4. Nascent
5. Little Dickens
6. See
7. Breathe
8. Hear
9. See (alternate take)

John Blevins – Trumpet
Drew Williams – Tenor Saxophone
Brad Mulholland – Alto Saxophone/Flute/Clarinet
Nick Grinder – Trombone
Marta Sanchez – Fender Rhodes
Jeff Mclaughlin – Guitar
Marty Kenney – Bass
Nathan Ellman-Bell – Drums/Percussion
John Doing – Congas

Produced by John Blevins and Shane Endsley

Recorded at Grand Street Recording in Williamsburg, Brooklyn by Jake Lummus on July 21 and 22, 2014

Edited and mixed by Jake Lummus and John Blevins, Autumn 2014

Mastered by Liberty Ellman on December 12, 2014

All compositions © and& ℗ 2015 John Blevins Music (ASCAP)

Original artwork and design by Sam Gezari

THANK YOU to Nathan, Marty, Jeff, Nick, Drew, Brad, Marta, and John for their dedication to this music. It’s an honor to play with you.

Special thanks to Shane Endsley, Jake Lummus, Liberty Ellman, Leah Jubara, Matt Hurley, Simon Yu, Sam Gezari, Daniel Stessen, and to Bill Jubara and everyone who supported this project on Kickstarter. Special thanks to my loving, supportive family and especially to Amanda.

For Ray and Howell.

pfMENTUM CD092

PFMCD092

master

Jeff Kaiser

I’ll Fly Away (Version One)

Jeff Kaiser 0 Comments

“I’ll Fly Away (Version One)” from I’ll Fly Away by Jeff Denson and Joshua White. Released: 2014. Genre: Improvisation, Creative, Composition.

Bubbeleh (PFMCD082)

Jeff Kaiser 1 Comment

[playlist ids="549"]
Andrew Conrad: Clarinet, Tenor Sax
Greg Zilboorg: Trumpet
Lauren Baba: Violin, Viola
Max Kutner: Guitar
Philip Rankin: Wurlitzer, Synthesizer, Melodica, Pump Organ, Tack Piano, Clave, Guiro
Rusty Kennedy: Bass
Colin Woodford: Drums, Congas, Shakers, Rattles, and Ankle Bells

1. Dybbuk Square Dance 3:29
2. Fear of Heights 5:07
3. Schmutzy Glasses 5:26
4. Woulda…Coulda…MESHUGGAH!!! 3:44
5. (An Honest) Living 2:19
6. Choots-Pah 3:55
7. Grepse 4:17
8. Simcha Boytchik Hintele (Puppy Party) 3:35
9. Mosesque 6:56
10. Bubberella 4:30
11. Czytzfachykz 4:54

1, 2, 5, 9, 10 composed by Max Kutner, © 2014 Maladept Music, ASCAP

4, 6, 7, 8 composed by Philip Rankin, © 2014 Jewish Shark Attack, ASCAP

3 composed by Greg Zilboorg, © 2014 Shouting Dog, ASCAP

11 composed by Rusty Kennedy, © 2014 Jewish Shark Attack, ASCAP

Recorded by Samur Khouja at Seahorse Sound Studios, Los Angeles, August 20-22, 2013
Assistant Engineer: Alex DeGroot
Mixed by Brian Saia, October-December 2013
Mastered by John Baffa at TVTray Studios, Simi Valley, CA, December 2013
Produced by Maxwell Ryan דוד Kutner and Philip Jason שַׂמֵחַ Rankin
Executive Producer: William Ross Gibson
Associate Producer: Debra Fredericks, Tamasaurus Rex
Logo by Dawn Chan * Layout and design by J. Carver

Max and Phil would like to thank the band: Greg, Rusty, Lauren, Andrew and Colin. Everyone who helped record this album: Samur, John and especially Brian. KT Pierce for photography and building our website. Phil would like to thank his Mother, Jill; his Father, David; his sister Michele; and his dog, Max. Max would like to thank his family: Leslie, Samantha, Stephanie, Art and Michael for their tireless, inexhaustible support and encouragement. Most importantly we would like to thank everybody who donated to our Indiegogo Campaign. This album would not have been made possible without your generous donations.

pfMENTUM CD082

PFMCD082

Zen Widow: Screaming in Daytime (Makes Men Forget) (PFMCD069)

Jeff Kaiser 0 Comments

[playlist ids="522"]
Zen Widow
Featuring Wadada Leo Smith

Zen Widow is:
Gianni Gebbia (alto saxophone)
Matthew Goodheart (grand piano, electro-acoustic gongs and cymbals)
Garth Powell (drums and percussion)
Special guest artist—Wadada Leo Smith (trumpet)

1. Gifts We Have Forgotten 13:05
2. Notated Memory 12:05
3. Black On White Paper 7:05
4. This Seeming Dream 7:36
5. Musa Physics 15:42
Total Time: 55:41

“Screaming in Daytime (makes men forget)” is Zen Widow’s third album, our first collaboration with Wadada Leo Smith, and it is in large part homage to tenor firebrand: Glenn Spearman.

Many of the melodies are constructed from fragments of his compositions. We inverted, rearranged, and modified what wasn’t completely new or created on the spot. Wishing to maintain the essence of Glenn’s rich compositional style was the priority, without resorting to a typical “tribute” collection of an artist’s past works.
All four of us worked with and deeply respected Glenn. I was a young artist right out of music school when I first worked with him. Already a master of the free jazz idiom, he was both thoughtful and generous to treat me as an equal given his age and experience. Although I frequently find myself thinking about the music we shared, this disc represents where the four of us are today—looking up and outward towards our friend.

The San Francisco Bay Area has been the home of a multitude of great artists as it continues to be. Yet, the fire and passion that was stoked throughout our community left a vacuum with Glenn’s passing. That loss is felt to this day. Glenn’s work with Cecil Taylor, Jimmy Lyons, The Glenn Spearman Double Trio with Larry Ochs, The Creative Music Orchestra with Marco Eneidi, and numerous other projects were all testaments to Glenn’s spirit and incredible power.

As improvisers we try to be in the moment, but it’s still hard not to gaze back and think of Glenn.

—Garth Powell 2012

I am very honored to dedicate this recording to Glenn Spearman, I worked with him only once at the Beanbenders concert series in Berkeley. I was very impressed by his solid sound, his gentleness and kindness of spirit. This recording is a double honor for me because of the great sounds of Wadada. He was the original soloist in the trio where I started my musical career with Peter Kowald and Gunther Baby Sommer. Wadada’s trumpet voice is the ideal to show our gratitude to Glenn.

Drops of Gold are falling forever in the long and everlasting dharma of the Great Black Music.

—Jòraku Gianni Gebbia 2012

In February of 1998, my group “Trio and. . .” played at the closing night of Radio Valencia in San Francisco. Performing was my regular line up of Glenn Spearman on tenor and Donald Robinson on drums, with Wadada Leo Smith as guest. The night was intense, beautiful, a fulfillment, these great artists sounding above those simple musical structures of my own making. A few weeks before I had been asked “If you could play with any musicians you wanted, who would it be?” My answer was: this group.

I did not know it at the time, but it was the beginning of an end of an era in Bay Area improvised music. Whatever forces drive certain moments in musicking, they had secretly begun to diverge. The group of artists centered around Radio Valencia moved to other venues. Glenn, in his own words, “went to join the ancestors” some nine months later. The scene slowly evolved into something else. The movement of that night, the deep interaction between Glenn and Wadada over the flux of the rhythm section, remains a personal embodiment of that time. All of these musicians had a profound impact on me, so generous in their time and artistry in support of a younger man struggling to find his formation. Glenn was my mentor; he brought me inside of his world, working closely, hours playing, absorbed in the details of his and our music. He taught me focus and intensity, maturity of vision. From Wadada I learned the concentrated, delicate, sensuous detail of shape and sculpture in each utterance. From Donald: flow, patience, attention, integrity.

To revisit Glenn’s music, over a decade after his death, with the collaborative Zen Widow and (once again) the generous addition of Wadada Leo Smith, moves into sound that complex network of events that exist as cadences in our lives. Glenn’s unending musicality calls back from the ancestors to play among the living.
I still learn from these artists, all of them. If asked again, if I could again play with any musicians I wanted, the answer again would be: this group.

—Matthew Goodheart 2012

Recorded Live to two-track analog at Ocean Way Recording—Studio A—Hollywood, California by Mike Ross (second engineer Patrick Spain)

Production and generous implementation of Audioquest microphone cables with DBS technology by Joe Harley

Mastered by Bernie Grundman—Bernie Grundman Mastering, Hollywood, California

Disc Manufacturing and 1:1 glass mastering—Groove House, Woodland Hills, California

Graphic Layout and Design—John Benz, Petaluma, California

Photography: Front Cover: Heike Neubauer–Antoci, Mettanest Studio, Dresden, Germany
Back Cover Group Photo: David Swann Photography
Inside Face Group Photo: David Goggin

Special thanks to Shantee Maggie Baker, John Benz, Michael Ehlers, Marco Eniedi, David Goggin, Bernie Grundman, Joe Harley, Jeff Kaiser, Wayne Powell, Mike Ross, David and Susan Thompson, everyone at Ocean Way Recording Hollywood, and all of our friends across the world who tirelessly create and support improvised music.

All compositions by Gebbia, Goodheart, Powell, and Smith. Evolving Door Music BMI 2012, SIAE 2012
© 2012 All Rights Reserved

pfMENTUM CD069

PFMCD069

Michael Vlatkovich and Dottie Grossman: Call & Response & Friends (PFMCD060)

Jeff Kaiser 0 Comments

[playlist ids="501,503"]
Artists: Los Angeles Recording:
Dottie Grossman: poems
Michael Vlatkovich: trombone
Rich West: drums/percussion
Anders Swanson: bass

L.A. Recording 7/09: Killzone Studio, Los Angeles, CA

Corvallis Recording (indicated by *) 11/05:
Dottie Grossman, poems; Michael Vlatkovich, trombone;
David Storrs, drums/ percussion, toys; Jim Knodle, trumpet

Corvallis Recording: Califas Studio, Corvallis, OR

engineer: Wayne Peet
producers: Michael Vlatkovich, Dottie Grossman
front cover art: Billy Mintz
design: Ted Killian

1. Benjamin Called (1:38)
2. I Wish (1:49)
3. Tumbleweed (:57)*
4. Early Wednesday morning (1:20)*
5. Veterans Hospital (1:18)*
6. Mendocino Coast 1967 (2:21)
7. Merry Christmas, Michael (1:12)*
8. Two Henny Youngman Poems (1:57)
9. This Winter (1:38)
10. Two Appropriations (1:39)*
11. The Two Times I Loved
You The Most In a Car (2:37)
12. Two Poems About Trucks (2:20)
13. Africa (1:29)*
14. Melting Pot (2:35)
15. Zoey Steps Out (1:18)*
16. Quotation (1:56)
17.Little Rock (2:03)*
18.Two More Henny
Youngman Poems (1:48)
19. Helicopter Noise (:50)*
20. This Is What I Do Best (1:33)
21. The People Who Hate Wind (1:22)*
22. Just Before (1:45)
23. Noon Concert (1:36)
24. Another Nose Poem (1:52)*
25. Definition of Happiness/
If I Were Directing This Movie (1:27)*
26. From Iceland (1:36)*
27. Alaska (1:49)
28. What Henny Youngman Loves
Most About America (:47)
29. Vince Salvino (1.16)*
30. Fortune Cookie (3:11)
31. Henny Youngman’s True
Confession (2:06)*
32. Sorry To Disappoint You (1:39)
33. Future Past (1:42)
34. Mark Weber-Type Poem (1:41)

Track 1

Benjamin called
from Long Beach Island,
New Jersey.
I said, “I can hardly hear you;
the ocean’s so noisy.”
He put down the phone
for a second
and screamed,
“Atlantic, will you please
shut up? —
I’m talking to Dottie.”

Track 2

I wish there was a town
called Nirvana
in Nevada.
It would be
a beautiful place,
in a valley,
where the only industry
was happiness.
Wouldn’t it be fun
to send a letter there —
addressed to
“Nirvana, NV”?

Track 3

Something is draped on a fence
until it is time to be tumbleweed.
In this room,
you are heroic,
tasting of summer and vitamins.
Step outside
and the tumbleweed rolls.

Track 4

Early Wednesday morning,
nobody’s kicked up any dust,
nobody’s made a dime, yet.
All the pet dogs
have left-alone faces.

Track 5

Veterans Hospital

The uniform white buildings
shine as pointlessly
as dead men’s teeth.
Here, everything is slower,
even southern,
as they dance to mark
the time between the palm trees
and forget in the clean cut grass.

Track 6

Mendocino Coast, 1967

Inland, where the grasses and grapes lived,
we could not have imagined
the rocks, the cold clouds —
the surf that would surround us
like a headache,
and those long tubes of kelp
like noodles
from another world
where, with the music of foghorns
and wind chimes,
even the kind moon
seemed dangerous.

Track 7

Merry Christmas, Michael

You remind me of a dolphin,
navigating the waves
with your own mysterious sonar
that sounds a lot like a trombone.

Track 8

2 Henny Youngman Poems

Henny Youngman On National Poetry Month

Henny Youngman hates National Poetry Month;
it gives him performance anxiety.

Henny Youngman To His Priest

Forgive me, Father,
for I have sinned.
I’m sexually aroused
by sacred music.

Track 9

This winter feels colder than ever,
or maybe I’m just more sensitive
these days,
when the wind is
a fire engine
and the moon is sinister
and blue.
I’m all bundled up for it,
stamping my feet,
drinking rum,
counting the days
until the yellow flowers.

Track 10

(two appropriations)

Tuna Fishing

“A March 22 “Outdoors” article
about tuna fishing
inadvertently identified an angler
as Rusty Johnson.
His name is Frosty Johnson.”

The Rhythm of Commercials On The Discovery Health Channel

Will a new nose help Wendy
rediscover her self esteem?

Track 11

The Two Times I Loved You the Most In A Car

It was your idea
to park and watch the elephants
swaying among the trees
like royalty
at that make-believe safari
near Laguna.
I didn’t know anything that big
could be so quiet.

And once, you stopped
on a dark desert road,
to show me the stars
climbing over each other
riotously
like insects;
like an orchestra
thrashing its way
through time itself.
I never saw light that way
again.

Track 12

Convoy

Tonight on the road,
the trucks are majestic;
they sashay like elephants
through the turns,
with jewels on their heads
and tails.

Night Convoy

The trucks are wearing rubies in their hair.
They are like beautiful movie stars,
walking carefully in high heeled shoes,
making whooshing noises in the dark.

Track 13

Africa:
its vowels are so seductive,
I get dizzy.
I’ve no wish to deplete
the wildebeest,
I only wish to eat the wildebeest.
Last year’s skeleton crop
set a new record.
The air is succulent
with lions and mahogany.

Track 14

We were sitting around the melting pot
(which is what I call my hairdresser’s):
a Korean, a Vietnamese, and myself (the American)
discussing our homelands calmly
like three women anywhere,
with no mention of bloodshed or memories.
I told them I’d been reading
about Angor Wat
and the Cambodian jungles
where heartless nature
buried the ancient temples
and we all agreed
that could never happen here
in Santa Monica.

Track 15

At eight months old,
Zoey steps out,
wearing a new tooth
and a rose
in her purple hat.

Track 16

“I don’t own an exquisite way to move around in the night.”

Doug Benezra, 9/18/05

It occurs to me that,
when I die,
they might find the necklace
I dropped behind the bed
and wonder
how long it was there,
and whether I’d missed it.
But will they care
about my favorite color,
my long-range plans,
or my habit of searching myself
for signs of rust?

Track 17

“The town has several antique shops and fruit stands, in addition to restaurants and gas stations.“
…from the Little Rock, CA website.

Little Rock

No, not that one —
This one’s in the desert,
about a two hour drive from here
It’s the color of western movies
(blue skies, brown horses).
There’s even a mirage —
rare water and
big Medjool dates,
a fruit stand in the uncomplaining dust
on the way to Valyermo,
to Saint Andrew’s Abbey,
where the dead monks sleep
in the tight-packed earth
of The Holy Land
off the main road.

Track 18

Henny Youngman doesn’t understand
why camping is not permitted
on the cemetery plot
he just paid for.

Henny Youngman On National Public Radio

Once again, I made it through the pledge drive
without contributing a dime.

Track 19

When I remember
how quiet you used to be,
the helicopter noise
in my head
disappears.

Track 20

This is what I do best:
I phone you
and say Congratulations,
Merry Christmas, Happy Birthday,
Happy New Year,
How’s your sister?
Are you better?
Is it hot enough for you?
Thanks, I love you, too.

Track 21

The people who hate wind
are insulated, inland;
they wear hats to keep them safe
from
flying poems.

Track 22

Just before I killed that bug,
I had the guilty thought
that it might be you, reincarnated,
but I told myself that,
if you did return,
it would be as a much higher life-form,
maybe a hummingbird.

Track 23

Noon Concert

These frail, white widows
who get their hair done weekly
in tight curls,
like little flowers
bend their heads
until the applause
says it’s time
to be brave, again.

Track 24

If the bridge of the nose
is really the seat of wisdom,
yours is The Britannica,
edited by Einstein,
illustrated by Picasso.

Track 25

Definition of Happiness #302

Yellow plates on a black table,
and my new curtains,
dancing a tango
in the open window.

If I were directing this movie,
we’d be walking through clouds
wet as dogs’ breath.
Just a dot of pink, for excitement,
and no music, just ice where the wind was.

Track 26

Since she was from Iceland
and didn’t know any better,
she said, “I miss the green of the east.
It’s so yellow here.
Of course, at home, we don’t have any trees.
Once, in New Jersey, I could see Manhattan
across the river,
as if it was a picture of Manhattan.”

Track 27

Alaska

Once, I got into a taxi
whose driver wore a turban.
We chatted about traffic and travel
and he said he absolutely loved Alaska,
where he’d worked on the pipeline for five years.
He blushed when he told me, “You know,
I’m a Muslim. We’re supposed to pray
five times a day, facing Mecca.
But sometimes, when nobody’s watching,
I face Alaska.”

Track 28

What Henny Youngman
loves most about America
is that anybody can
grow up to be the Pope.

Track 29

We were all sitting around,
talking about what kind of animal
we’d like to be,
and Vince said, “A gorilla,
because they’re the most like us.”

Track 30

Fortune Cookie

You are going to look exactly
like your father —
one of those draped,
semi-ecstatic old Jews
you see framed
on the mantel
in grandmothers’ houses.
Like him,
you will lapse into Yiddish,
throwing your hands up
in mock surrender.
And your lips will move
when you read,
and your children will
imitate you.

Track 31

Henny Youngman’s True Confession
(thanks to M.B.)

I think that, if I were to talk to a rabbi,
he’d listen and all,
but then we’d just end up
with him asking me
to explain the Internet.
I went to a palm reader,
said, “I’m in love with a straight guy
who can’t love me back.”
She said, “Why would you
want to do that?”
I’m, like, exiled,
all the best people are.

Track 32

Sorry To Disappoint You

As the elder in your Chinese house,
I have almost no wisdom to offer:
A few books, a few poems –
I’m not sure there’s anything else,
except that I once shook John Coltrane’s hand,
and sex in the morning is more fun
than cereal.
The rest you already know.

Track 33

Future Past

If I had stayed asleep
I would have missed
the fun of speaking English,
the quiet satisfaction
of appointments kept,
the way dreams change
when you try to describe them.

Track 34

Mark Weber-Type Poem

So my latest rejection comes from Iowa,
about a week before Christmas:
“Thank you for allowing us
to consider your work…”
I picture the writer
at a desk overlooking a corn field.
There’s a droopy plant
on the windowsill
and a volume of Yeats or Keats
nearby.
It has been a tough day,
and here I come,
galloping into that landscape
with my palm trees and deserts,
coyotes and surfers.

pfMENTUM CD060

PFMCD060

Jeff Kaiser and Gregory Taylor / The Desert Fathers: Coptic Icons (PFMCD050)

Jeff Kaiser 1 Comment

[playlist ids="467"]
The Desert Fathers

Jeff Kaiser: Quartertone Trumpet, Laptop
Gregory Taylor: Laptop

ONLY AVAILABLE DIGITALLY

1. Visions (Saint Anthony) 31:14
2. The White Monastery (Saint Shenouda) 26:02

Recorded direct-to-disc 4.27 and 4.28.07 at the Boise Experimental Music Festival
CD art, mix and mastering by Jeff Kaiser
© 2007, Gregory Taylor, BMI and Jeff Kaiser Music, ASCAP
For more information:
www.pfMENTUM.com • PFMCD050

The Desert fathers—a collection of ascetics, monks, and hermits—fled the persecutions and chaos of the Roman Empire in the third century AD and settled in the deserts of Egypt, seeking safety and solace in loose-knit refugee communities at the margins of civilization. When the persecutions stopped, they remained-drawn as individuals by the solitude, privation, and self-discipline borne of desert life.

Born the son of wealthy landowners, orphaned, and later disciple of a local ascetic, St. Anthony the Great is noteworthy as the first to actually pursue an isolated (anchoritic) life in the desert itself. His biographies describe in vivid detail the afflictions and visions of his isolation—torments from which he emerged enlightened, serene, and healthy. After this, he moved further into the wilderness even as his fame grew, founding his own monastery where he dedicated himself and his disciples to prayer and the discipline of manual labor.

Shenouda the Archimandrite first visited the White Monastery (so named for the color of limestone of its outer walls) located near the Upper Egyptian city of Souhag as a boy. He remained there as a result of a vision granted to the monastery’s abbot, and eventually served as its abbot during its heyday as a thriving ascetic community.

Anthony and Shenouda were both canonized after their deaths as saints in the Coptic Orthodox Church. As monks, they combined their own individualized practices with regimens attuned to their lives in a desert environment and introduced elements of shared communal practice (the sharing of meals and liturgical practice) into their communities that laid the foundations for what we now think of as Christian monasticism.

pfMENTUM CD050

PFMCD050